Make Good Decisions about Your Health Care The most comprehensive consumer health text available, Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions offers a panoramic view of the health marketplace. You’ll learn how to sharpen your critical consumer skills so you can distinguish valid health claims from those that are fraudulent or misleading. By offering science-based facts and guidelines, Consumer Health provides the tools you need to make smart decisions about health care products and services for yourself and your family.
Some of the many new and revised topics include:
Updated information on health care economics, refl ecting the most recent legislation and debates regarding insurance and mandatory coverage and how it affects you.
New and expanded material on complementary and alternative medicine, including the latest on fad diseases, “energy medicine,” accreditation standards, and diploma mills.
Current research and information on nutrition and weight management, including “detox” products, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, and the newly-designed MyPlate food guide.
About the Authors
Stephen Barrett, M.D., has been investigating and writing about consumer health issues for more than 40 years. His Quackwatch website serves as a clearinghouse for information on health frauds and quackery. He serves as Vice President of the Institute for Science in Medicine, is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, edits Consumer Health Digest, and is a peer-review panelist for several top medical journals.
William M. London, Ed.D., M.P.H., is a health educator and professor in the Department of Public Health at California State University, Los Angeles. He is also the associate editor of Consumer Health Digest, co-host of the Credential Watch website, and a member of the editorial board of the journal FACT (Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies: An Evidence-Based Approach).
Manfred Kroger, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Food Science and Professor Emeritus of Science, Technology and Society at The Pennsylvania State University, where he has won several teaching awards. He is a science communicator for the Institute of Food Technologists and is scientifi c editor of its online journal, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. He is also associate editor of the Journal of Food Science and a scientifi c advisor to the American Council on Science and Health.
Harriet Hall, M.D., a retired family physician and colonel, served 20 years in the U.S. Air Force. Her administrative positions included chief of clinic services and director of base medical services. She now devotes her time to investigating questionable health claims and writing and lecturing about pseudoscience, quackery, “alternative medicine,” and critical thinking. She is a contributing editor to both Skeptical Inquirer and Skeptic magazines and a founding member and editor of the Science-Based Medicine blog.
Robert S. Baratz, M.D., D.D.S., Ph.D., an expert on quality of care, is president and medical director of South Shore Health Care in Braintree, Massachusetts, where he practices internal, oral, and occupational medicine. He serves on the medical faculties of Boston University and Tufts University and is used as a consultant by many regulatory and law enforcement agencies.
1179536 01/28/12 C Y
CONSUMER HEALTH A Guide to Intelligent
STEpHEN BARRETT, MD Author, Editor, Consumer Advocate Webmaster, Quackwatch Network
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
WiLLiAM M. LONDON, EDD, MpH Professor, Department of Public Health
California State University Los Angeles, California
MANfRED KROgER, pHD Professor Emeritus of Food Science
Professor Emeritus of Science, Technology and Society The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania
HARRiET HALL, MD Retired Family Physician
ROBERT S. BARATz, MD, DDS, pHD President and Medical Director, South Shore Health Care
CONSUMER HEALTH: A gUiDE TO iNTELLigENT DECiSiONS, NiNTH EDiTiON
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2007, 2002, 1997. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containing 10% postconsumer waste.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QDB/QDB 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
ISBN 978-0-07-802848-9 MHID 0-07-802848-5
Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Michael Ryan Vice President & Director of Specialized Publishing: Janice M. Roerig-Blong Publisher: David Patterson Executive Editor: Christopher Johnson Marketing Coordinator: Colleen P. Havens Development Editor: Darlene Schueller Senior Project Manager: Lisa Bruflodt Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rowles Buyer: Sue Culbertson Media Project Manager: Sridevi Palani Primary Typeface:11-point Times Composition: Stephen Barrett, M.D. Printer: Quad/Graphics
All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Consumer health : a guide to intelligent decisions / Stephen Barrett …[et al.]. — 9th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-802848-9 (alk. paper) 1. Medical care. 2. Health products. 3. Quacks and quackery. 4. Consumer education. I. Barrett, Stephen, 1933- RA410.5.C645 2013 362.1–dc23 2011039127
Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who resides near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and con- sumer advocate. In addition to heading Quackwatch, he is vice president of the Institute for Scientific Medicine and a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (formerly called CSICOP). In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition quackery. In 1986, he was awarded honorary membership in the American Dietetic Association. From 1987 through 1989, he taught health education at The Pennsylvania State University. In 2001 he received the Distinguished Service to Health Educa- tion Award from the American Association for Health Education. He has been listed in Who’s Who in America since 2001 and is also listed in Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, Who’s Who in Medicine and Health Care, and Who’s Who in the World. An expert in medical communications, Dr. Barrett operates 25 Web sites; edits Consumer Health Digest (a free weekly electronic newsletter); is medical editor of Prometheus Books; and is a peer-review panelist for several top medical journals. His 51 books include The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America and seven of the previous editions of Consumer Health. His other major works include Dubious Cancer Treat- ment, published by the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society; Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds, published by Consumer Reports Books; The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods, published by Prometheus Books; and Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods, published by the American Medical Associa- tion. His Quackwatch Web site, which serves as a clear- inghouse for information on health frauds and quackery, has won more than 70 honors and awards. Since moving to North Carolina in 2007, he has been swimming com- petitively and has won 25 state championship events.
William M. London, Ed.D., M.P.H., is a professor in the Honors College and the Department of Public Health at California State University, Los Angeles. He
is also associate editor of Consumer Health Digest, co-host of the Credential Watch Web site, a consultant to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, a Quackwatch advisor, an advisor to the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), a founding fellow of the Institute of Science in Medicine, a member of the review board of the American Journal of Health Behavior, and a member of the International Editorial Board of the journal FACT (Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies: An Evidence-Based Approach). He was an associate professor and chair of the Department of General Studies at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, where he led the initiation of the Master’s Program in Urban Public Health. He has also been an associate professor of health education at Kent State University; founding president of the Ohio Council Against Health Fraud; president of the National Council Against Health Fraud; faculty mentor in public health at Walden Univer- sity; professor of Health Sciences at Touro University International; associate professor and director of the Graduate Program in Health Care Management at Col- lege of St. Elizabeth; director of public health for ACSH; director of communications at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health; and executive direc- tor of RAP, Inc., a nonprofit mental health and senior citizens service agency in Genesee County, New York.
Manfred Kroger, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Food Science and Professor Emeritus of Sci- ence, Technology and Society at The Pennsylvania State University, where he has won several teaching awards. He is a science communicator for the Institute of Food Technologists and is scientific editor of its online journal, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. He also serves as associate editor of the Journal of Food Science, an ACSH scientific advisor, and a technical editor for Prometheus Books. He has conducted research in analytical chemistry (pesticide residues), food composition, fermented milk products, and dairy processing technology. Even though retired, he remains professionally active at Penn State and nation- ally and internationally. His university courses included
About the Authors
food laws and regulations, toxicology, introductory food science, dairy technology, and a very popular university- wide general education course entitled “Food Facts and Fads.” His other professional activities include lecturing at public and professional meetings, expert testimony in court and at government hearings, and translation of German writings. In 1999 he was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists. In 2003, he served as the editor of the Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of Food Science and Technology.
Harriet Hall, M.D., is a retired family physician who resides in Puyallup, Washington. She served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force, from which she retired in 1989 as a full colonel. In addition to practicing family medicine and flight medicine, she held administrative positions including Chief of Aerospace Medicine and Director of Base Medical Services. Since retiring, Dr. Hall has devoted her time to investigating questionable health claims and writing and lecturing about pseudo- science, quackery, “alternative medicine,” and critical thinking. She is a contributing editor to both Skeptical Inquirer and Skeptic magazines and writes the latter’s “SkepDoc” column. She is also a founding member and editor of the Science-Based Medicine blog; an advisor to the Quackwatch network; an editorial review board member for the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Da- tabase; a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry; and a founding fellow and board member emerita of the Institute for Science in Medicine. Her 2008 book, Women Aren’t Supposed to Fly: The Memoirs of a Female Flight Surgeon, describes how she became a pilot and helped bring about equality for women physicians in the Air Force. Her Web site is www.skepdoc.info.
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