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December 14, 2020
Assignment 2: LASA: Victim Population Analysis, psychology homework help
December 14, 2020

For my final project, you will need to complete a virtual art museum visit and thoroughly discuss two to four works. Please pay close attention to the following assignment criteria.
Go to this “gallery” website for referencing your Final Project: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/
The site is broken down by dates. Cruise the dates and artworks located in those eras of art influence and address the following final project guidelines:

Be no less than three pages, but no more than four pages in length.
Compare and contrast a minimum of two artworks (no more than four) in which you will relate specific terminology and facts from glossary readings.
Discuss the relevance and/or influence of each work to history/ art history (via historical context, i.e What was going on in the world at that time that influenced the works and/or vise, versa?).
Include a minimum of three resources per work of art from the book and/or internet to support your claims.
Include a citation for each source used.
Incorporate correct art history vocabulary in your examination.

Here is some glossary terms that some must be used:

Abstract Expressionism

Also known as the New York School. The first major American avant-garde movement, Abstract Expressionism emerged in New York City in the 1940s. The artists produced abstract paintings that expressed their state of mind and that they hoped would strike emotional chords in viewers. The movement developed along two lines: gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction.

Action painting

Also called gestural abstraction. The kind of Abstract Expressionism practiced by Jackson Pollock, in which the emphasis was on the creation process, the artist’s gesture in making art. Pollock poured liquid paint in linear webs on his canvases, which he laid out on the floor, thereby physically surrounding himself in the painting during its creation.

Assemblage

An artwork constructed from already existing objects.

Chromatic abstraction

A kind of Abstract Expressionism that focused on the emotional resonance of color, as exemplified by the work of Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko.

Color field painting

A variant of Post-Painterly Abstraction in which artists sought to reduce painting to its physical essence by pouring diluted paint onto unprimed canvas, allowing these pigments to soak into the fabric, as exemplified by the work of Helen Frankenthaler and Morris Louis.

Conceptual art

An American avant-garde art movement of the 1960s that asserted that the “artfulness” of art lay in the artist’s idea rather than its final expression.

Deconstruction

An analytical strategy developed in the late 20th century according to which all cultural “constructs” (art, architecture, and literature) are “texts.” People can read these texts in a variety of ways, but they cannot arrive at fixed or uniform meanings. Any interpretation can be valid, and readings differ from time to time, place to place, and person to person. For those employing this approach, deconstruction means destabilizing established meanings and interpretations while encouraging subjectivity and individual differences.

Earthworks

An American art form that emerged in the 1960s. Often using the land itself as their material, Environmental artists construct monuments of great scale and minimal form. Permanent or impermanent, these works transform some section of the environment, calling attention both to the land itself and to the hand of the artist. Sometimes referred to as earthworks.

Environmental art

An American art form that emerged in the 1960s. Often using the land itself as their material, Environmental artists construct monuments of great scale and minimal form. Permanent or impermanent, these works transform some section of the environment, calling attention both to the land itself and to the hand of the artist. Sometimes referred to as earthworks.

Gestural abstraction

Also known as action painting. A kind of abstract painting in which the gesture, or act of painting, is seen as the subject of art. Its most renowned proponent was Jackson Pollock. See also Abstract Expressionism.

Hard-edge painting

A variant of Post-Painterly Abstraction that rigidly excluded all reference to gesture, and incorporated smooth knife-edge geometric forms to express the notion that painting should be reduced to its visual components.

Impasto

A layer of thickly applied pigment.

Installation

An artwork that creates an artistic environment in a room or gallery.

Minimalism

A predominantly sculptural American trend of the 1960s characterized by works featuring a severe reduction of form, often to single, homogeneous units.

Neo-Expressionism

An art movement that emerged in the 1970s and that reflects the artists’ interest in the expressive capability of art, seen earlier in German Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism.

Performance art

An American avant-garde art trend of the 1960s that made time an integral element of art. It produced works in which movements, gestures, and sounds of persons communicating with an audience replace physical objects. Documentary photographs are generally the only evidence remaining after these events. See also Happenings.

Photorealism

A school of painting and sculpture of the 1960s and 1970s that emphasized producing artworks based on scrupulous fidelity to optical fact. The Superrealist painters were also called Photorealists because many used photographs as sources for their imagery.

Photorealism

Pixels

Shortened form of “picture elements.” The tiny boxes that make up digital images displayed on a computer monitor.

Pop art

A term coined by British art critic Lawrence Alloway to refer to art, first appearing in the 1950s, that incorporated elements from consumer culture, the mass media, and popular culture, such as images from motion pictures and advertising.

Post-Painterly Abstraction

An American art movement that emerged in the 1960s and was characterized by a cool, detached rationality emphasizing tighter pictorial control. See also color field painting and hard-edge painting.

Postmodernism

A reaction against modernist formalism, seen as elitist. Far more encompassing and accepting than the more rigid confines of modernist practice, postmodernism offers something for everyone by accommodating a wide range of styles, subjects, and formats, from traditional easel painting to installation and from abstraction to illusionistic scenes. Postmodern art often includes irony or reveals a self-conscious awareness on the part of the artist of the processes of art making or the workings of the art world.

Site-specific art

Art created for a specific location. See also Environmental art.

Superrealism

A school of painting and sculpture of the 1960s and 1970s that emphasized producing artworks based on scrupulous fidelity to optical fact. The Superrealist painters were also called Photorealists because many used photographs as sources for their imagery.

Art Nouveau

French, “new art.” A late-19th- and early-20th-century art movement whose proponents tried to synthesize all the arts in an effort to create art based on natural forms that could be mass produced by technologies of the industrial age. The movement had other names in other countries: Jugendstil in Austria and Germany, Modernism in Spain, and Floreale in Italy.

Color
The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.

Complementary colors

Those pairs of colors, such as red and green that together embrace the entire spectrum. The complement of one of the three primary colors is a mixture of the other two.

Divisionism
A system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges Seurat. The artist separates color into its component parts and then applies the component colors to the canvas in tiny dots (points). The image becomes comprehensible only from a distance, when the viewer’s eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to as divisionism.

Impressionism
A late-19th-century art movement that sought to capture a fleeting moment, thereby conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of images and conditions.

Japonisme
The French fascination with all things Japanese. Japonisme emerged in the second half of the 19th century.

Modernism
A movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age. Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves the artist’s critical examination of the premises of art itself.

Optical mixture

The visual effect of juxtaposed complementary colors.

Plein air

An approach to painting much popular among the Impressionists, in which an artist sketches outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light, air, and color. The artist then takes the sketches to the studio for reworking into more finished works of art.

Pointillism

A system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges Seurat. The artist separates color into its component parts and then applies the component colors to the canvas in tiny dots (points). The image becomes comprehensible only from a distance, when the viewer’s eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to as divisionism.

Post-Impressionism

The term used to describe the stylistically heterogeneous work of the group of late-19th-century painters in France, including van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, and Cézanne, who more systematically examined the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern, form, and color than the Impressionists did.

Primary colors

Red, yellow, and blue the colors from which all other colors may be derived.

Simultaneous contrasts

The phenomenon that juxtaposed colors affect the eye’s reception of each, as when a painter places dark green next to light green, making the former appear even darker and the latter even lighter. See also successive contrasts.

Successive contrasts

The phenomenon of colored afterimages. When a person looks intently at a color (green, for example) and then shifts to a white area, the fatigued eye momentarily perceives the complementary color (red). See also simultaneous contrasts.

Symbolism
A late-19th-century movement based on the idea that the artist was not an imitator of nature but a creator who transformed the facts of nature into a symbol of the inner experience of that fact.

Value
The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.

Additive light

Natural light, or sunlight, the sum of all the wavelengths of the visible spectrum. See also subtractive light.

Additive sculpture

A kind of sculpture technique in which materials (for example, clay) are built up or “added” to create form.

Attribute (n.)

The distinctive identifying aspect of a person, for example, an object held, an associated animal, or a mark on the body. (v.) To make an attribution.

Carving

A technique of sculpture in which the artist cuts away material (for example, from a stone block) in order to create a statue or a relief.

Casting

A technique of sculpture in which the artist places a fluid substance, such as bronze or plaster in a mold.

Chronology

In art history, the dating of art objects and buildings.

Collage

A composition made by combining on a flat surface various materials, such as newspaper, wallpaper, printed text and illustrations, photographs, and cloth.

Color

The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, econdary, and complementary colors.

Composition

The way in which an artist organizes forms in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or arranging forms in space.

Evidence

In art history, the examination of written sources in order to determine the date of an artwork, the circumstances of its creation, or the identity of the artist(s) who made it.

Foreshortening

The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.

Form

In art, an object’s shape and structure, either in two dimensions (for example, a figure painted on a surface) or in three dimensions (such as a statue).

Formal analysis

The visual anaylsis of artistic form.

Genre

A style or category of art; also, a kind of painting that realistically depicts scenes from everyday life.

Hierarchy of scale

An artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance.

Iconography

Greek, the “writing of images.” The term refers both to the content, or subject, of an artwork and to the study of content in art. It also includes the study of the symbolic, often religious, meaning of objects, persons, or events depicted in works of art.

Illusionism (adj. illusionistic)

The representation of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface in a manner that creates the illusion that the person, object, or place represented is three-dimensional. See also perspective.

Intensity

The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.

Landscape

A picture showing natural scenery, without narrative content.

Line

The extension of a point along a path, made concrete in art by drawing on or chiseling into a plane.

Medium (pl. media)

The material (for example, marble, bronze, clay, fresco) in which an artist works; also, in painting, the vehicle (usually liquid) that carries the pigment.

Mural

Period style

A distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique manner.

Personal style

A distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique manner.

Perspective

A method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface. In linear perspective, the most common type, all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended distance between eye and object increases.

Physical evidence

In art history, the examination of the materials used to produce an artwork in order to determine its date.

Proportion

The relationship in size of the parts of persons, buildings, or objects, often based on a module.

Regional style

A distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique manner.

School

A chronological and stylistic classification of works of art with a stipulation of place.

Space

In art history, both the actual area which an object occupies or a building encloses, and the illusionistic representation of space in painting and sculpture.

Spectrum

The range or band of visible colors in natural light.

Statue

A three-dimensional sculpture.

Still life

A picture depicting an arrangement of objects.

Style

A distinctive artistic manner. Period style is the characteristic style of a specific time. Regional style is the style of a particular geographical area. Personal style is an individual artist’s unique manner.

Stylistic evidence

In art history, the examination of the style of an artwork in order to determine its date or the identity of the artist.

Symbol

An image that stands for another image or encapsulates an idea.

Technique

The processes that artists employ to create form, as well as the distinctive, personal ways in which they handle their materials and tools.

Texture

The quality of a surface, such as rough or shiny.

Tonality

The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.

Tone

The lightness or darkness of a color.

Value

The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.

Volume

The space that mass organizes, divides, or encloses.

Weld

To join metal parts by heating, as in assembling the separate parts of a statue made by casting.

 
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